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 حلول تمارين الانجليزية للسنة الثانية ثانوي

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عدد المشاركات : 10
تاريخ التسجيل : 04/04/2014

مُساهمةموضوع: حلول تمارين الانجليزية للسنة الثانية ثانوي   الأحد أبريل 06, 2014 2:46 pm

PREVIEW (p.36)
Go through the preview with your students and make them aware of the end-of-the unit objectives. Brainstorm the types of projects that can be compatible with the language exponents and skills that will be learned in the unit.
THINK IT OVER (p.37)
Interact with your students about the different symbols/pictures to allow them enter smoothly the unit. e.g., What does the picture on the left-hand corner represent/show? It represents the United Nations Secretariate Building? Where is it situated? ...
WORDS TO SAY(p.37)
Read aloud the abbreviations/acronyms and get your students to repeat the pronunciation of these abbreviations/acronyms before setting them to match some of the symbols/pictures with their corresponding abbreviations/acronyms.
DISCOVERING LANGUAGE (pp.38-43)
BEFORE YOU READ (pp.38-39)
Interact with students and try to elicit an interpretation of the picture. Try not to correct your students’ responses at this stage.
KEY
1- The “blue helmets” / U.N’s peacekeeping troops.
2- They are working for the United Nations Organisation.
3- They are from Algeria
4- The buildings are destroyed because of the war.
5- The soldiers’ chief duty is to re-establish/restore peace in the area.
6- Suggested answer: Yes, I would like people all over the world to live in
peace/ to make peace.
AS YOU READ (p.38)
Act. One (p.38)
Check the students’ responses to the Before you read activity. The key is given above.
Act. Two (p.38)
It is not necessary to set the same questions for your students year after year. You can devise your own questions about the text. However, it is important to introduce equivalents of modals can and could when you set your questions.
29
KEY
a- The horrors of modern warfare have made Man think about the
preservation of human life.
b- It could not stop stop/It was incapable of stopping fascism because it had
no power of its own.
c- It is the Security Council of the U.N. that can settle disputes.
d- Possible title: The United Nations: Its Branches and its Functions
AFTER READING (pp.39-41)
KEY
a- “Can” expresses possibility; “Can” can also express also ability or permission. e.g., ability: I can ride a bicycle.
permission: Can I go out?
b- The regular past form of can is could. Its irregular form is was/were able to. We can replace managed to by was/were able to , which indicates a successful completion of an action.
c- The future form of “can” is: “will be able to”.
Refer your students to the Grammar reference N° 8, page 197 to check their answers and to consolidate further the use of can/could and their irregular forms.
PRACTICE (pp.40- 41)
Act. One (p.40)
The students will practise the use of the modals can/could and their irregular forms by doing a completion activity.
a. The League of Nations cannot impose economic sanctions on warlike nations.
b. Germany will be able to join the Security Council soon because it is the third economic power in the world.
c. The UN General Assembly can only make recommendations to the
Security Council. It cannot make decisions.
d. The United Nations Organization has not been able to create a permanent military force yet.
e. Dag Hammarskjold, who served as Secretary General of the UN from
1953 to 1961, was able to organize peacekeeping task forces.
f. UN peacekeeping troops, called ‘blue helmets’, can use force only for
temporary self-defence purposes. They can maintain peace, but they can not prevent war.
g. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
30 (UNESCO) was able to launch its Peace Programme only after the end of the Cold War.
Act. Two (p.40)
In this activity, your students will identify the different functions that can be expressed by the modals can and could. You can tell your students to write sentences of their own to express the same functions using the same modals.
KEY
Column A
Column B
1. Can you hear what he’s saying?
2. We could build a culture of peace by being more tolerant.
3. Contrary to what some people think, women can be tall
and strong.
4. “I’ve hurt her feelings. What shall I do ?”
“Well, you could apologize to her.”
5. I wonder if you could come here and talk it over.
6. At the age of 17, you can take your driving licence
with your parents’ consent, but you can’t vote.
7. Don’t lean out of this window; you could fall down.
8. Can I help you?
a. ability
b. possibility
c. possibility
d. suggestion
e. request
f. permission
g. warning
h. offer
Act. Three (p.41)
The aim of this activity is to illustrate the idea of achievement inherent to the use of the irregular form of can was able/were able to.
Example
You: Did you convince them?
Your partner :Yes. It was difficult. But we were able to do it in the end.
The answers are not necessarily the ones given in this key.
You: Did they settle the dispute?
Your partner: Yes, it took them a lot of time of negotiation, but they
were able to reach an agreement at the last minute of the discussion.
You: The exercise was difficut, wasn’t it?
Your partner: Yes, we were able to solve it thanks to the collaboration of
everybody.
31
You: My car broke down in a forest road.
Your partner: Were you able to repair it and drive back home?
WRITE IT RIGHT(p.41)
Before setting the students to task, make sure you explain to them what the word prejudice means. Brainstorm with them the types of gender/generational/racial prejudice that are most common in our society. e.g., Women are not usually considered to be strong; men are thought as effiminate if they speak softly; the elderly are supposed to be able to do nothing once they are retired; the young are regarded as impulsive etc. The students should feel free to denounce the prejudices they like.
Down with Prejudices
Do you think a woman can be tall and strong ?
Do you think she can be pretty and strong?
Do you think she can be a good mother and a bread winner ?
Do you think a man can be small and pretty?
Do you think he can speak softly and still be considered a man?
Do you think the elderly people can _____?
Do you think they _________________________ ?
__________________________________________
Do you think young people can be young and wise?
Do you think they _________________________ ?
If you do, then you deserve to be called an unusual human being .
SAY IT ALOUD AND CLEAR (p.42)
Act. One (p. 42)
KEY
Intonation at the end of the underlined sentences:
Journalist: …Could you spare a few minutes please ? ى.
El-Baradai:………………………………………………..
32 Journalist: …How do you feel about it ? î
El-Baradai:
Journalist: Would you mind saying in what sense please? ى
El-Baradai: Not at allî
Journalist: May I ask another question ? ى
El-Baradai:
Journalist: I wonder if you could tell me something about the chances of
peace for the next decade please ? ى
El-Baradai: Journalist: Will you please give us some examples ? ى
El-Baradai: ...........................................................................
Act. Two (p.42)
Before the students start doing the activity, make sure you simulate requests with the language exponents given in the textbook. Put emphasis on the new forms: I wonder if ..., Do/would you mind ....?
WORKING WITH WORDS (p.43)
Act. I
Your students can be asked to bring out print-outs of other abbreviations/acronyms from the Internet to the classroom. They will make a synthesis of the major organisations concerned with peace and human relief all across the world and make a classroom wall sheet . You can check the pronunciation of the acronms/abbreviations in the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English or in the Oxford Advanced Leaner’s Encyclopedic Dictionary. Please remember that some of the abbreviations/acronyms can stand for various organisations. Those suggested here are not necessarily the ones that your students will suggest.
Abbreviation/Acronym
Full form
Description
UNWRA
United Nations Relief Works Agency
The UNWRA is the U.N organization which brings relief to people in need.
33
ABC
American Broadcasting Company
ABC is one of the four most important TV channels in the United States of America.
A-BOMB
Atomic bomb
A bomb which derives its destructive power from the rapid release of energy by fission of
heavy atomic nuclei. The first atomic bomb to be used was dropped on Hiroshima , Japan on 6 August 1945 by the USA.
AID
Agency for International Development
BBC
British Broadcasting Corporation
CIA
Central Intelligence Agency
CNN
Cable News Network
FBI
Federal Bureau of Investigation
FIFA
Federation Internationale de Football Association (International Association Football Association)
GB
Great Britain
Great Britain comprises ...
MBC
Middle East Broadcasting Company
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
NBA
National Basketball Association
OPEC
Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
Ph.D
Doctor of Philosophy
34 PTA
Parent-teacher Association / Passenger Transport Authority
UK
United Kingdom
WBA
World Boxing Association
Act. Two (p.43)
Brainstorm the major concepts that can related to peace and war in the classroom by making a word map. Then assign the words as dictionary entries to be completed at home in the way suggested in the textbook. You will check the students’ work in the classroom. Here are some words related to peace and war : violence, treaty, consensus, discussion, dialogue, non-violence ...
LISTENING AND SPEAKING (pp.44-47)
Act. One (p.44)
Ask questions about the picture. e.g., Who are the girls in the picture? They are school girls? Where are they? How do you know? Do they look happy? ... It is not necessary to get the right answers at this stage.
Act. Two (p.44)
The students will check some of the predictions they have made in Act.One.
Act. Three (p.44)
The questions included in this activity will allow the students to identify the actors, the situation, the topic of discussion and to provide a summary of the dialogue they have listened to. These questions are related to the listening strategy of not trying to know every single word when listening to conversation .
a- two classmates
b- in the classroom (see the picture)
c- Leila is upset; she’s angry with Maya.
d- Yes, it is.
e- Maya has made fun of her friend Leila in front of her classmates. Leila is angry with her. At last, Maya feels sorry for what she has done.
Act. Four (p.44)
No, I did’t. ( Stress falls on the auxiliary.)
Yes, you did.( Stress falls on the auxiliary.)
Did I ? ( Stress falls on the personal pronoun.)
You did . (Stress falls on the auxiliary.)
35
Act. Five (p.45)
Simulate the snippet for your students before they act it out. They can play a variation on the snippet.
YOUR TURN (pp.45-46)
Go through the tip box before moving on to the next activities. Relate the information in the tip box to the comprehension questions in activity three.
Act. One (p. 45)
The answers are not necessarily the ones given in this answer key.
A- Your partner: Sorry, I should have asked for your permission.
B- Your partner: He shouldn’t have done that.
C- Your partner: He shouldn’t have borrowed it without your permission.
D- Your partner: I’m really sorry. I shouldn’t have said that.
Act. Two (p.46)
KEY
A- O
B- D
C- D
Have your students write similar sentences to express deduction and obligation.
WRITE IT UP (pp.46-47)
Brainstorm the difficult vocabulary in the box before setting the students to task. Refer the students to the Grammar Reference n° 9 on page 198 before you set them to task.
Possible key
- We have to tolerate difference.
- We have to respect each other.
- We have to keep cool.
- We shouldn’t shout at each other.
- We should learn to listen to each other.
- We mustn’t impose ourselves on others.
- We shouldn’t cheat at exams.
- We should accept the opinions of others.
- We shouldn’t insult others.
- We needn’t /don’t need to always agree with each other.
- We don’t have to be violent.
-We should settle disputes peacefully.
36 Act. Two (p.46)
Possible acrostics
P: Pay more attention to others.
E: Engage in non-violent compaigns/actions.
A: Act peacefully.
C: Collect signatures to end war and violence in the world.
E:Express disagreement for conflicts.
D: Do actions according to the law of your country.
E: Engage in campaigns for the freedom of speech.
M- Make protest against anti- social measures.
O: Organise yourselves in committees to fight against injustice
C: Collect funds for the election of your candidate.
R: Respect the rights of others.
A: Act against poverty.
C: Care about the homeless.
Y:Yell out your solidarity with people in need of justice.
Act.Three (p.47)
Duties
Rights
Work hard
Respect the opinion of others
Tolerate differences
Respect the rights of others
Promote a culture of peace
Co-operate to solve problems
Express opinions
Meet together to express views
Free education
Good working conditions
Health care
information
CLASS CHARTER ( p.47)
The class charter can be presented in the form of a wall sheet. Refer the students to the text on page 56 ( Exploring matters further).
Suggested answers:
Article One: Rights
a- Children have the right to get free education.
b- Children have the right to meet together to express views.
c- The school autuorities must offer good working conditions.
d- The school autuorities mustn’t discriminate among children.
e- The parent-Teacher Association has the right to express opinion about the educational policy.
37
Article Two: Duties and Responsibilities
a- We have the duty to respect the opinions of others
b- We must work hard.
c- We shall tolerate differences.
d- We mustn’t be the cause of school disorder.
READING AND WRITING (pp.48-49)
Act. One (p.48)
Interact with your students by asking questions about the picture. You can add other questions to the checklist.
a- The picture represents a slave ship. ( Please, talk about slave trade.)
b- I think that the ship is in Africa, and it is going to America.
c- Geoge Washington, first U. S President ; July 4th, 1783: Independence Day; Abraham Lincoln ( US President) ; 1861-1865 : American Civil War; Martin Luther King Jr 1963. One of the leaders of the Civil Rights movement;
August 1963, March of 200,000 people on Washington DC to demand racial equaliry. (Discuss further these points in class monitoring the discussion towards racial issues in the US.)
Act. Two (p.48)
a. Martin Luther King Jr. was one of the Black American leaders of
the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ( The students can suggest other
answers.)
b- He hoped/wished his children to be free from racial prejudice.
c- The author/Martin Luther King repeats words, phrases and ideas: “I have
a dream”, “one day”,”we’ll be able to”…
He uses an oratorical style in order to stimulate his audience; to get the
audience to feel the injustice of racial discrimination and segretation .
d- Yes, because it is full of hope. (The students can suggest other ideas.)
Act. Three (p.49)
The aim of this activity is to develop the students’ dictionary skills.
KEY
Address: speech or talk to an audience.
Can: ability or capacity to do something
Spiritual: a religious song as sung by Negroes in the USA.
Choice of words from the speech: character n. 1- ( of a person, community, race,…etc) mental or moral qualities that make one person ,race, etc different from others; 2- moral strength; 3-person who is well known; 4- letter, mark used in a system of writing or printing.
38 WRITE IT OUT ( p.50)
Before assigning the writing activity to your students, first go through the tip box .Then brainstorm the age limits . The students will take the jottings that you will make on the board to write their speech/address. Martin Luther King’s address will be taken as a model.
WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE ? (p.52)
Skills check (p.52)
TEXT FOUR (p.57) AMERICAN FRIENDS
QUESTION ONE ( Key: The correct answer is D.)
What is the main idea of this passage/song? Circle the correct answer.
A.An American soldier is fighting for the Vietnam war.
B.The Mexican-American war
C. Thoreau and Mark Twain are ashamed of America.
D .A young man refuses to fight for American wars.
QUESTION TWO ( Key: Statements A. and C. are false.)
Circle true or false. When false, give the correct information.
A. The young man attended the college graduation. T. F.
B. He is ashamed of being American. T. F.
C. He marched against the Vietnam war at twenty. T. F.
Written comprehension
In no more than 20 lines, say why the author does not like wars.
39
OBJECTIVES
40 PREVIEW (p.58)
Go through the preview to let the students be aware of what they will learn in the unit. Brainstorm a checklist of projects compatible with the new language items and skills covered by the unit, and let them discuss and choose the project they would like to materialise. Again, it is not recommended to let the students do the same project year after year.
THINK IT OVER (p.59)
Get the students interact about the stamps. What does each of them represent/show? When was the stamp issued? On which occasion was it issued ? ...The interaction will serve as an introduction to the topic of the unit.
WORDS TO SAY(p.59)
The words in the checklist are related to the topic of the unit. The emphasis is on the pronunciation of consonants. Make sure the students know how to pronounce each of them.
DISCOVERING LANGUAGE (pp.60-63)
BEFORE YOU READ (p.60)
The students will interact about the map using their background knowledge.
1- The map represents Southern America.
2- The area in green stands for the Amazon Forest.
3- It is situated between Brazil, Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia.
4- The line in question is that of the equator.
5- The equatorial climate is hot and humid.
AS YOU READ (p.60)
Act.One (p.60)
The students will the check the answers they have not checked in the Before-you-read activity.
Act. Two
a-.There is more than a decade of global fossil fuel emissions of carbon
dioxide stored in the Amazon Forest trees.
b- The Amazon basin ecosystem has been protected from threats because of
its isolation.
c- It is one of the world’s greatest conservation challenges because it is no
longer isolated. ( Students will give one or two justifications from the text.)
41
AFTER READING (p.61)
1- a- Timber companies
b-The Brazilian government
These sentences are in the passive voice because the subjects of the verbs
are not really the doers/agents of the actions i.e.,the focus is on the actions
rather than on the performers/ doers (of the actions).
2-a- Timber companies fell 18.000km2 of forest trees
b-The Brazilian government built new roads throughout the 1960’s
and 1970s.
3- The sentences that give attention to the action itself are the sentences from the reading text; The students’ sentences are in the active. They put emphasis on the doers/performers of the actions.
4- The writer has inverted the structure by foregrounding the action (putting it first in the sentence structure) and putting the real performers/doers of the action at the end of the sentence.
5- a-C ; b-D; c-B; d-A
6- No, it is not always necessary to use by in passive sentences. We use by when we want to draw attention to the doer of the action.
Make sure your students go through the Grammar Reference n°10 pp.199-200 to check their answers.
Practice (pp.62-63)
Act. One (p. 62)
KEY
The Exxon Valdez was wrecked just off the coast of Alaska in 1986.
It was carrying a huge cargo of oil. The oil spilled out, and it was washed onto the beach by the wind. The water was polluted. The beach was damaged . The fishing industry was ruined. Hotels and restaurants were closed.
Act. Two
Use the weak forms of the auxiliaries was and were unless indicated otherwise in the answer key below. The focus in this activity is on the pronunciation of the auxiliary was/were in the passive.
Speaker A. What happened to the Exxon Valdez?
Speaker B. It was wrecked off the coast of California and the oil spilled
out.
42 Speaker A. The oil was washed out onto the beach?
Speaker B. Yes, it was (Use the strong form of the auxiliary.).
It was spread out by the winds.
Speaker A. Was the fish poisoned?
Speaker B. Yes, they were ( Use the strong form.). They suffocated for lack of oxygen.
Act. Three (p.
Students will act out the dialogue once you have simulated it .
Act. Four
a. Fumes from automobile exhaust pipes cause air pollution.
Air pollution is caused by fumes from automobile exhaust pipes.
b. Water pollution will deplete many water zones of their oxygen soon.
Many water zones will be depleted of their oxygen by pollution soon.
c. The Algerian government will ban cigarette smoking next year.
Cigarette smoking will be banned by the Algerian government next
year.
d. The Post and Telecommunication Ministry has already issued a lot of
environmental stamps. A lot of environmental stamps have already been issued by the Post and Telecommunication Ministry
e. We haven’t imposed drastic limits on gas emissions and noise yet.
No drastic limits have been imposed on gas emmisions yet.
WRITE IT RIGHT ( p.63)
Explain what a press release is to your students . Then brainstorm the topic before we set them to task.
Press release
We make our sincere apologies for the damage caused by the wreck of the Exxon Valdez yesterday. Oil will be recuperated with special machines and the spoilt beaches will be cleaned. Marine life will be restored; birds will be washed out. We promise that 2000 workers will be recruited soon. Hotel workers will be employed by the company and the tourist industry will be compensated for its loss. ... (Students can add examples of their own;)
43
SAY IT LOUD AND CLEAR (p.64)
Act. One (p.64)
The activity illustrates list intonation. We use a falling intonation when we end the listing and a rising intonation when we are still in the process of doing so.
There are five types of alternative energies (intonation goes down): solar (rising intonation), wind (rising intonation), biomass (rising intonation), and hydroelectric (falling intonation) . All of them can be produced in our country because we have the following natural resources (falling intonation): the wind (rising intonation), the sun (rising intonation), the mountains (rising intonation) …
However, solar energy is by far the most viable (falling intonation). It is cheaper (rising intonation), safer(rising intonation) and less polluting falling intonation). SONELGAZ has already built power plants in Biskra(rising intonation), Djelfa(rising intonation), Hassi Rmel (rising intonation)and other localities in the South of Algeria (falling intonation).
Act. Two (p.64)
Discuss with your students and try to single out the sounds which pose pronunciation problems. Then try to find to elaborate a remedial work for these problem sounds.
Act.three (p.64)
The problem sounds given in the activity are the most common ones (for Algerian speakers of English). Elaborate another exercise to illustrate other problem sounds if there are any other ones that your students meet and proceed to remedial work.
KEY: Use a dictionary which contain phonetic transcriptions.
1. WORKING WITH WORDS (p.64)
Act. One (p.64)
It is recommended to use the words that your students should look up in dictionary in context.
Act. Two
The strategies for checking difficult vocabulary are as follows. First, the students will resort to a dictionary only once s/he can’t guess the meaning of the difficult words from context. For this, s/he needs to identify the category of the words, see whether there are any synonyms, antonyms, or paraphrases of these difficult words. Once s/he is sure that she can’t do otherwise than checking
44 a dictionary for understanding the meaning of the difficult words that she has singed out from the text, she will open the dictionary at the page where the word is listed. In doing so, s/he will pay attention to the alphabetical order. (Cf; For further information about dictionary skills, check the Key to Entries in Oxford Leaner’s Dictionary of Current English, pp. XIV - XVIII)
Act. Three (p.65)
A: pronunciation
B: compound/complex word
C: figurative language
D: example
E: transitive verb
F: something
G: somebody
H: proverb
I: uncountable noun
J: colloquial English
K: American English
L: colloquial English
M: adjective
N: adverb
LISTENING AND SPEAKING (pp.66-68)
Act.One (p. 66)
Interact with the students and make them identify and interpret the photosynthesis process. Then they will complete the blanks with the verbs in the yellow box.
Act. Two (p. 66)
The students will check their answers to activity one.
KEY
a- Carbon dioxide is derived from the air.
b- Water is drawn from the soil.
c- Sunlight energy is absorbed by chlorophyll.
d- Oxygen is released from plants and food.
e- Sugar is produced during photosythesis.
Act. Three (p.66)
Plants must be protected. /m‘sbi¸/
They can’t be replaced by man-made converters . /k‰¸mbœ/
45
They shouldn’t be cut down. /©ھmbi¸/
Act. Four
Brainstorm the topic with your students before they describe the process in question.
YOUR TURN (p.67)
Act. One (p.67)
Make sure your students pronounce the modals in the correct way.
a. We mustn’t hunt animals in danger of extinction.
Animals in danger of extinction mustn’t be hunted.
b. We shouldn’t throw recyclable objects.
Recylable objects shouldn’t be thrown away.
c. We should stop desertification.
Desertification should be stopped.
d. We can divide pollution into four types.
Pollution can be divided into four types.
e. We may group alternative energies in five categories: wind, solar, biomass and hydro-electric .
Alternative energies may be grouped in five categories: ...
f. We must protect our human resources.
Human resources must be protected.
TIP BOX (p.67)
Go through the tip box before you move on to the activity in the Write it up rubric.
WRITE IT UP (p.68)
Interact with the students using the picture. The students will identify the different parts of the solar home and their functions. Explain the difficult vocabulary if necessary.
Ladies and gentlemen....
During winter, ouside air is captured by warm glass roof panels. Then,
warm air is forced down into a water tank by an air handling unit.
Next, the water in the tank is heated and greater quantities of warm water
air are released. The hot air is then sent down a duct to the crawlspace in
under-floor area. After that, warm water rises through floor registers to the
46 living space. Some of the heated air is absorbed by concrete slabs . It is
released at night. This process is reversed during summer.
READING AND WRITING ( pp.69-71)
Act. One (p. 69)
Elicit the students’ responses to the pictures. Then let them choose what they consider as the right answers to the questions attached to the pictures. Don’t check their interpretations at this stage.
Act. Two (p.69)
The students will check their answers to the questions in activity one.
KEY
1- b
2- c
3- c
Act. Three (p.70)
easily made angry= irritability (noun)
is confirmed= is borne out (verb)
related to the brain= mental (adjective)
Act. Four (p.70)
The best title is Another Kind of Pollution. Noise pollution has not been recognized as such until recently.
Act. Five (p.70)
a- A sentence which focuses on the general idea:
e.g., For a long time, noise has been known to cause sleeplessness and
irritability, and now other studies are linking it to a wide range of mental
and physical disturbances.
b- A sentence which gives details to support/ develop the general idea:
e.g., In Los Angeles, researchers have found that people living near the
airport have…
c- A sentence which provides a smooth transition from one idea to
another.
e.g., In the opinion of many hearing specialists, time is running out.
d- A sentence which supports the new idea:
e.g., The number of mental diseases will be multiplied by two or three…
e- A sentence which logically concludes the ideas discussed in the
paragraph:
e.g., This health alert against……
47
WRITE IT OUT ( p.71)
Act.One (p.71)
A sentence is missing in the list of scrambled sentences. Give it to the students before you start brainstorming the topic related to the sentences. The sentence runs as follows : At least two great civilizations (establish) there.
a. Throughout the world, deserts are created because pastures near arid lands heavily are grazed and trampled.
b. Around towns, adjacent forest belts are denuded by people in their search for firewood.
c. More productive plants are introduced into semi-arid lands. As a result, indigenous plants necessary for the maintenance of the soil are nudged out.
d. Many people think that desertification is caused only by a change in climate, but the truth is that deserts are provoked by human actions.
e. Because of intensive production of cash crops like cotton and groundnuts, soil nutrients are dissipated and the topsoil is eroded by wind and water.
f. A long time ago, history was made in the deserts.
g. Today, about 140 million people are threatened by the spread of the desert caused through the interaction of climatic fluctuations and man’s abuse of his environment.
h. Desertification must be stopped now, otherwise deserts will be transformed into a curse for man soon.
i. These civilizations were built in deserts because people knew how to live in harmony with nature.
k. At least two great civilizations were established there.
Act. Two (p.71)
The students will write the whole paragraph on their portfolios indicating the various functions of the sentences.
1. f - 2. k - 3-i 4. g - 5. d - 6.a - 7.c - 8. e - 9.b - 10.h
WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE ? (p.73)
Skills check (p.73)
TEXT FIVE (p.75) ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN MODERN TIMES
READING COMPREHENSION
48 QUESTION ONE
Choose the one word that best keeps the meaning of the original word written in bold in these sentences from the text:
The global energy situation began to change significantly in the second half of the last century.
A. occasionally
B. frequently
C. greatly
D. virtually ( Key: The correct answer is C.)
Widespread ownership of energy- hungry appliances contribute to this huge growth in enegy consumption.
A.. unique
B. incredible
C. very big
D. noticeable (Key: The correct answer is C.)
QUESTION TWO
In line 15, the phrase it wasn’t until means :
A. It was before 1954.
B. It was after 1954.
C. It was in the year 1954.
(Key: The correct answer is C.)
WRITTEN COMPOSITION
Your school plans to produce a science magazine on the topic «Save more, consume less.» You have read the text on «Energy Consumption» and you decide to write an article in which you describe what people should do at home and elsewhere to consume less energy and save it for future generations. Write your article in 20 lines.
TEXT SIX (p.76) THE CONSERVATION OF HUMAN RESOURCES
READING COMPREHENSION
QUESTION ONE
What does the writer imply by: “Human beings, as producers, are positive resources” ?
A. They contribute to the country’s economic growth.
B. They produce good teachers.
C. They contribute to the creation of new jobs.
D. They avoid killing themselves in a nuclear war.
(Key: The correct answer is A.)
49
QUESTION TWO
In the writer’s opinion, human conservation means :
A. developing medical services for the disabled and the blind.
B. educating people better for new jobs.
C. producing more physical raw materials.
D. contributing to optimal living conditionals for human beings.
(Key: The correct answer is D.)
QUESTION THREE
Choose the one word that best keeps the meaning of the original written in bold in the following sentence from the text:
The conservation of positive human resources begins with health improvement.
A. problems
B. betterment
C. resources
D. organisations.
Key: The correct answer is B.)
QUESTION FOUR
In line 20, what exactly does the phrase “this direction” describe ?
WRITTEN COMPOSITION
What will happen to us when raw materials grow scarce ? Write a letter to your local newspaper in which you express your own views on this topic .
50
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